Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2012 , Vol 58 , Num 3

Health and Labour Questionnaire: Turkish Adaptation for Ankylosing Spondylitis

Engin Çakar 1 ,Emel Özcan 2 ,Ekin İlke Şen 3 ,Oğuz Durmuş 1 ,Ayşe Karan 4 ,Mehmet Zeki Kıralp 5
1 GATA Haydarpaşa Training Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Istanbul, Turkey
2 İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul Tıp Fakültesi, Fiziksel Tıp ve Rehabilitasyon Anabilim Dalı, Istanbul, Türkiye
3 İstanbul Üniversitesi, İstanbul Tıp Fakültesi, Fiziksel Tıp ve Rehabilitasyon Anabilim Dalı, İstanbul, Türkiye
4 İstanbul Üniversitesi İstanbul Tıp Fakültesi, Fiziksel Tıp ve Rehabilitasyon Anabilim Dalı, İstanbul, Türkiye
5 Gülhane Askeri Tıp Akademisi Haydarpaşa Eğitim Hastanesi Fiziksel Tıp ve Rehabilitasyon Servisi, İstanbul, Türkiye
DOI : 10.4274/tftr.22448

Objective: The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Health and Labour Questionnaire (HLQ) into Turkish.


Materials and Methods: The cross-cultural adaptation was conducted according to the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research guideline which consists the following ten steps respectively: Preparation, forward translation, reconciliation, back translation, back translation review, harmonization, cognitive debriefing (pilot testing), review of cognitive debriefing test results and finalization, proofreading and final report. The pilot testing was performed with 20 volunteers with ankylosing spondylitis.


Results: The consensus version was prepared for pilot testing after the harmonization step. The translations generally found to be understandable to the participants. Some modifications and additional explanations for some terms in the questions 1, 2, 3, 15, 16 and 17 were required during the pilot testing. Furthermore, the response choices about the education system for the 3rd question of the appendix were adapted to the national system.


Conclusion: The Turkish adaptation of the HLQ was performed successfully and found to be understandable to the pilot group and the expert group. It was considered that the Turkish version of the HLQ would encourage further researches about productivity loss related to many chronic health problems.

Keywords : Health and labour questionnaire; labour force; productivity; work; ankylosing spondylitis