Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2023 , Vol 69 , Num 2

Osteoporosis: Spotlight on current approaches to pharmacological treatment

Dilşad Sindel 1
1 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Türkiye DOI : 10.5606/tftrd.2023.13054 Despite the availability of safe and effective anti-osteoporosis treatments, osteoporosis continues to be undertreated. The increase in fragility fractures, which is the main clinical consequence of osteoporosis, is a major problem for healthcare systems of countries. A broad range of drugs including antiresorptive and anabolic agents are used in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis. Fracture risk assessment in drug selection is of utmost importance in terms of guiding treatment. The recommended thresholds for osteoporosis treatment decision making are based on major osteoporotic and hip fracture probabilities from the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®). Currently, antiresorptive agents are usually the first choice to increase bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce the fracture risk. Bisphosphonates and antiresorptive drugs such as denosumab, a nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, are the most widely used drugs in the treatment of osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates alone are unlikely to provide long-term protection against fracture and restore BMD in patients with severe osteoporosis and high fracture risk. In such patients, treatment with an anabolic agent such as teriparatide, abaloparatide, or romosozumab should be ideally initiated to achieve maximal gain in bone mass and preserve the microarchitecture. Ideally, an antiresorptive drug should be continued to maintain gain in bone mass. Keywords : Anabolic agents, antiresorptive agents, osteoporosis, treatment