Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2023 , Vol 69 , Num 1

Musculoskeletal involvement: COVID-19 and post COVID 19

Deniz Evcik 1
1 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ankara Private Güven Hospital, Ankara, Türkiye DOI : 10.5606/tftrd.2023.12521 The worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was known to predominantly affect the lungs, but it was realized that COVID-19 had a large variety of clinical involvement. Cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems are involved by direct or indirect mechanisms with various manifestations. The musculoskeletal involvement can manifest during COVID-19 infection, due to medications used for the treatment of COVID-19, and in the post/long COVID-19 syndrome. The major symptoms are fatigue, myalgia/arthralgia, back pain, low back pain, and chest pain. During the last two years, musculoskeletal involvement increased, but no clear consensus was obtained about the pathogenesis. However, there is valuable data that supports the hypothesis of angiotensinconverting enzyme 2, inflammation, hypoxia, and muscle catabolism. Additionally, medications that were used for treatment also have musculoskeletal adverse effects, such as corticosteroid-induced myopathy and osteoporosis. Therefore, while deciding the drugs, priorities and benefits should be taken into consideration. Symptoms that begin three months from the onset of the COVID-19 infection, continue for at least two months, and cannot be explained by another diagnosis is accepted as post/long COVID-19 syndrome. Prior symptoms may persist and fluctuate, or new symptoms may manifest. In addition, there must be at least one symptom of infection. Most common musculoskeletal symptoms are myalgia, arthralgia, fatigue, back pain, muscle weakness, sarcopenia, impaired exercise capacity, and physical performance. In addition, the female sex, obesity, elderly patients, hospitalization, prolonged immobility, having mechanical ventilation, not having vaccination, and comorbid disorders can be accepted as clinical predictors for post/long COVID-19 syndrome. Musculoskeletal pain is also a major problem and tends to be in chronic form. There is no consensus on the mechanism, but inflammation and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 seem to play an important role. Localized and generalized pain may occur after COVID-19, and general pain is at least as common as localized pain. An accurate diagnosis allows physicians to initiate pain management and proper rehabilitation programs. Keywords : Bone, COVID-19, muscle, post/long COVID-19