Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2022 , Vol 68 , Num 1

Non-invasive brain stimulation in rehabilitation

Serdar Kesikburun 1
1 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Health Sciences, Gülhane Medical School, Gaziler Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey DOI : 10.5606/tftrd.2022.10608 Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been seen more common in rehabilitation settings. It can be used for the treatment of stroke, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis, as well as for some diagnostic neurophysiological measurements. Two major modalities of NIBS are transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). As an add-on therapy to conventional rehabilitative treatments, the main goal of NIBS is to create neuromodulation by inhibiting or activating neural activity in the targeted cortical region. Indications for therapeutic NIBS in neurorehabilitation are motor recovery, aphasia, neglect, dysphagia, cognitive disorders, spasticity, and central pain. The NIBS can be regarded a safe technique with appropriate patient selection and defined treatment parameters. This review provides an overview on NIBS modalities, specifically TMS and tDCS, the working mechanisms, the stimulation techniques, areas of use, neuronavigation systems and safety considerations. Keywords : Non-invasive brain stimulation, rehabilitation, transcranial direct current stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation