Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 , Vol 67 , Num 4

The effects of ankle-foot orthoses with plantar flexion stop and plantar flexion resistance using rocker-sole shoes on stroke gait: A randomized-controlled trial

Aliyeh Daryabor 1-2-3 ,Gholamreza Aminian 2 ,Mokhtar Arazpour 2 ,Mina Baniasad 4 ,Sumiko Yamamoto 3
1 Department of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Assistive Technological Science, Graduate School, International University of Health and Welfare, Japan
4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
DOI : 10.5606/tftrd.2021.6448 Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the effect of two ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs), AFO with plantar flexion stop (AFO-PlfS), and AFO with plantar flexion resistance (AFO-PlfR), while wearing standard shoes and rocker-sole shoes.

Patients and methods: Between November 2017 and July 2018, in this randomized-controlled study, a total of 20 stroke patients (8 males, 12 females; mean age: 48.1 years; range, 33 to 65 years) in chronic phase were randomized to AFO groups (AFO-PlfS group, n=10 and AFO-PlfR group, n=10). Each group received the allocated AFO along with two kinds of shoes (standard shoe and rocker shoe) for a two-week adaptation. Two effects were separately evaluated: The orthotic effect and rocker shoe effect were defined as the evaluation of using an AFO wearing standard shoe compared to only standard shoe, and evaluation of using an AFO wearing rocker shoe compared to an AFO wearing standard shoe, respectively. The gait of each group was measured by three-dimensional motion analysis.

Results: A significant orthotic effect was found in both AFO groups in spatiotemporal parameters and maximum ankle dorsiflexion in the single-support phase. Additionally, the AFO-PlfR group showed a significant improvement in the parameters related to the first rocker of gait, but not for AFO-PlfS group concerning the orthotic effect. The rocker shoe effect was found in significant reduction of peak ankle plantar flexor moment and power ankle generation during preswing for both AFO groups.

Conclusion: According to the orthotic effect, an AFO-PlfR can create better function in the improvement of parameters related to the first rocker. Although a rocker shoe can facilitate rollover for weight progression in the third rocker of gait, it cannot make a strong push-off function in stroke survivors. Keywords : Gait, hemiplegia, orthotic devices, rocker shoe, stroke