Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2006 , Vol 52 , Num 2
Advanced Orthoses
Ayşe Nur Bardak 1
1 İstanbul Fiziksel Tıp ve Rehabilitasyon Eğitim Araştırma Hastanesi, İstanbul, Türkiye

Standing and walking give paraplegic patients functional, physiological and psychological advantages. Until today three different systems for standing and walking have been developed; mechanical orthoses, functional electric stimulation (FES) systems and hybrid systems. Mechanic orthoses are used for training but it is not practical because of difficulty in donning and  duffing, high energy cost. FES systems are advantageous because it's easy to put on and take off and has a good cosmetic appearance. However, the pure FES systems must supply electrical stimulation continuously to the paralyzed nerves and/or muscles, which causes muscle fatigue and high energy requirement. In hybrid systems, mechanical orthoses and FES systems are combined to prevent muscle fatigue, reduce energy consumption and enable better stability in the lower extremities.

Keywords : FES systems, hybrid orthoses, assistive technology